Tanzania’s Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) is a critical site for lion conservation. However, as a multi-use protected area, the NCA is also home to almost 100,000 people, the vast majority of whom are traditional pastoralists who rely almost exclusively on livestock for their livelihood. As a result of human-lion conflict and associated retaliatory killing of lions, lions have disappeared from much of their historical range within the NCA. Since 2011, KopeLion has worked to mitigate Ngorongoro’s human-lion conflict, including through implementation of the Lion Guardians model. KopeLion plan to complement their existing work through the establishment of a lion conservation incentive payment (CIP) program.